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Objectifs

  1. Comprendre le fonctionnement d’un onduleur
  2. Connaitre le concept de la commande symétrique
  3. Savoir les applications d’un onduleur
  4. Connaitre les caractéristiques du pont H complet BTS7660
  5. Connaitre le schéma d’un onduleur monophasé en pont H complet
  6. Voir la vidéo pour plus de détails

Exemples d’applications d’un onduleur

  1. Convertisseur DC/AC: Exemple conversion 12V (DC) en 220 AC
  2. Variateur de fréquence / Variateur de vitesse
  3. Adaptation entre réseaux: Exemples (50Hz/400Hz)
  4. Etc.

Caractéristiques du pont H complet BTS7960

  • Pont H complet aux transistors MOSFET (x4) avec les diodes  (pour les charges inductives)
  • La tension d’alimentation (partie puissance) : 5.5V à 27V
  • Alimentation partie commande: 3.3-5V
  • Courant maximal (partie puissance) : 43A
  • Insolation entre la partie commande et la partie puissance
  • Le module peut être utilisé pour les charges DC (Inversion du sens/vitesse des moteurs DC) ou AC (onduleur)
  • Fréquence maximale des entrées PWM : DC-25KHz
  • Protection contre surtension/surintensité
  • Module intègre deux capteurs du courant (sens 1 / sens2)
  • Voir la vidéo pour plus de détails


A quoi sert le composant BTS6960 ?

Le ponts H est constitué de deux composants BTS7960 identiques sous forme de deux demi-point à base des transistors MOS complémentaires. Chaque transistor est muni d’une diode de roue libre pour les charges inductives pour permettre la circulation du courant de la bobine de la charge lorsque l’ensemble des transistors sont en circuit ouvert. Chaque circuit protège la charge contre la surtension, surintensité, etc. et un capteur du courant. La figure ci-dessous illustre le schéma du demi ainsi son datasheet.

Obtenir le datasheet du composant 

Comment ça marche le capteur du courant ?

Le pont H complet dispose de deux sorties courant indépendantes qui reflètent le courant à la borne de la charge avec un coefficient pret. Le rapport entre le courant réel de la charge est IS est égale à 8500. Chaque sortie courant L_IS et R_IS indique le courants qui circule dans un sens du pont H. Autrement dit, si on considère la sorties L_IS, on obtient uniquement un courant L_IS avec un signe (+) quand la charge est alimentée avec une tension positive (sens 1). En revanche, le courant dans le sens 2 est nulle (R_IS=0). Lorsque la charge est alimentée  par une tension négative (sens 2), le R_IS dispose d’un signal négative et L_IS=0.

Comment utiliser le capteur du courant ?

Il se peut que vous ayez besoin de mesures le courant à la borne de la charge pour des raisons de surveillance, asservissement, etc. Dans, ce cas la mesure du courant par le µC est une étape importante. Il suffit d’ajouter une résistance entre la sorties courant et la masse de la carte Arduino tout en respectant  le rapport 8500 entre le courant de la charge (IL) et IS. Par exemple si R=1k, la tension au borne de la résistance V=R*IS= R*IL/8500= IL*1000/8500=IL/8.5 ! Si IL=8.5A alors V=1V !

Il faut dimensionner la résistance R de telle manière à ne pas dépasser V=5V qui correspond au courant maximal de la charge

Comment calculer  la résistance R pour Imax=43A et V=Vmax=5V ?

V=R*IL/8500 => Vmax=R*Imax/8500 => R=Vmax*8500/Imax

 

Exemple : Vmax=5V, Imax=43A alors R=988.37 Ohm

Comment ça marche la comment symétrique ?

La commande symétrique est relativement simple à mettre en ouvre et largement utilisée dans les applications des convertisseurs. Elle consiste à alterner entre le sens 1 et le sens 2 du pont H. La commande nécessite deus signaux carrés complémentaires ayant un rapport cyclique égal à 50%. La tension au borne de la charge du pont alterne entre +Vbat et -Bvat, avec Vbat la tension d’alimentation du pont H (Voir la vidéo pour plus des détails).

La valeur de la commande symétrique est égale à Vbat (valeur maximale du signal carré symétrique). C’est un valeur fixe. Voir ici pour plus d’infos.

Valeur efficace signal carré symétrique

Comment ça marche la commande décalée ?

Voir la partie 2 du projet

Tout les Projets Arduino

 

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2 commentaires

Wesley · 2021-06-10 à 9:36

Bonjour
S’il vous plait, j’aimerais le schéma de cablage de ce montage

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