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Titre: Structure des ordinateurs

Auteurs: Y. Mine

Ecole: ESA NAMUR

Résumé: Le processeur et tous les composants qui l’entourent doivent traiter les nombres usuels (0, 1, 2…8, 9) dont la représentation au moyen d’états électriques est très complexe. C’est la raison pour laquelle les ordinateurs travaillent sur des nombres binaires, et n’utilisent que les valeurs 1 (allumé) et 0 (éteint). Chaque 0 ou 1 d’un nombre binaire constitue un bit. C’est la plus petite unité envisageable.

Il faut 4 bits pour représenter un chiffre ordinaire tel que « 8 » (qui s’écrit 1000 en binaire).
Une lettre majuscule telle que « A » est codée 01000001. Un groupe de huit bits est appelé byte ou octet, chaque octet correspondant ainsi à un caractère. Un octet, comme son nom l’indique, a une taille de 8 bits, tandis qu’un byte peut être éventuellement composé d’une quantité supérieure de bits.  La plupart des PC disposent de processeurs qui peuvent manipuler des nombres de 32 ou de 64 bits. Pour toutes les opérations portant sur des nombres plus importants, le processeur doit travailler sur des portions réduites, puis reconstituer le résultat sous forme d’un nombre unique.

Les ordinateurs ne font qu’allumer et éteindre des milliers de transistors qui fonctionnent comme de minuscules interrupteurs. En en combinant un grand nombre, on peut créer une grande variété d’instructions.  L’arithmétique binaire est utilisée parce que c’est la plus efficace. Cela veut dire qu’une information numérique peut être stockée en distinguant plusieurs valeurs d’un phénomène physique continu comme une tension ou une intensité.  Plus on distinguera de valeurs, plus l’espace entre les valeurs sera petit et moins le dispositif de mémorisation sera discriminant et fiable. Avec la numération binaire, il suffit de savoir distinguer deux états, c’est en ce sens que c’est la méthode la plus fiable pour coder l’information numérique.

Extrait du sommaire:

I – Les origines de l’informatique
II – Le codage de l’information: le système binaire
1 Le boîtier central
1.1 Les cartes en général
1.1.1 La carte mère – les formats
1.1.1.1 Architecture multitâches
1.1.1.2 Le disque virtuel
1.1.1.3 La mémoire virtuelle
1.1.2 Les cartes d’extension
1.1.3 Le refroidissement du pc
1.1.4 Le DRM
1.2 Le processeur
1.2.1 Définition du processeur
1.2.2 Fonctionnement du processeur
1.2.3 Fabrication des processeurs
1.2.4 Historique des processeurs
1.2.5 Les valeurs utilisées
1.2.6 Composition d’un processeur
1.2.7 Le refroidissement
1.2.8 Architecture super-scalaire
1.2.9 Les supports des processeurs
1.2.10 Les différents processeurs
1.2.10.1 Pentium
1.2.10.2 Xéon
1.2.10.3 Pentium2
1.2.10.4 Pentium4
1.2.10.5 Centrino
1.2.10.6 Athlon
1.2.10.7 Cell
1.2.10.8 Core2
1.2.10.9 Core 2 Quad
1.2.10.10 Core i7
1.2.10.11 Atom
1.2.10.12 AMD FX8150 Bulldozer
1.2.11 Rôle du processeur
1.2.12 La course à la miniaturisation
1.2.12.1 L’effet tunel
1.2.13 Les modes de transfert
1.3 Le chipset
1.3.1 Rôle du chipset
1.3.2 Conception du chipset
1.3.3 Les fonctions les plus importantes du chipset
1.4 Le bus
1.4.1 De quoi se compose le bus
1.4.2 Les connecteurs d’extension
1.4.3 Les types de bus
1.4.3.1 le bus ISA
1.4.3.2 le bus AT
1.4.3.3 le bus MCA
1.4.3.4 le bus EISA
1.4.3.5 le bus VESA (VLB)
1.4.3.6 le bus PCI
1.4.3.7 le bus AGP
1.4.3.8 le bus USB
1.4.3.9 l’interface SCSI
1.4.3.10 le bus AMR / CNR
1.4.3.11 le bus PCI Express
1.4.3.12 RedTacton
1.5 les interruptions
1.5.1 l’IRQ
1.5.2 répartition des interruptions
1.5.3 les déroutements
1.6 le canal DMA
1.7 les interfaces
1.7.1 l’interface RS 232 C
1.7.2 L’IEEE 1394 ou FireWire
1.7.3 l’interface centronics
1.7.4 L’IEEE 1284
1.7.5 Interfaces ATA ou IDE
1.7.6 Le Sata
1.7.7 Le Long LBA
1.7.8 Atapi
1.7.9 WiFi
1.7.10 Bluetooth
1.7.11 WiMax
1.7.12 La communication infrarouge
1.7.13 Les puces RFID
1.7.14 La 3G
1.7.15 La 4G
1.8 La mémoire cache
1.8.1 Le mode burst
1.8.2 Cache asynchrone
1.8.3 Cache synchrone
1.8.4 Cache pipeline burst
1.8.5 La taille de la cache
1.8.6 La vitesse de la cache
1.8.7 Contigüité
1.9 La mémoire virtuelle
1.10Le bios
1.11Le setup
1.12Les mémoires
1.12.1 La rom
1.12.2 La ram
1.12.2.1 Les différentes sortes de ram
1.12.3 Aspects physique des barettes de mémoire
1.12.4 Le contrôle d’erreur
1.12.5 Mémoire avec correction d’erreur
1.12.6 Technologies ram en développement
1.12.7
1.13Combien de Ram
1.14Organisation de la mémoire vive
1.15Gestion de la mémoire
1.15.1 Mémoire conventionnelle
1.15.2 Mémoire supérieure
1.15.3 Mémoire étendue XMS
1.15.4 Mémoire expansée EMS
1.16La mémoire flash
1.16.1 Les types de cellules
1.16.2 Les mémoires Compact flash
1.16.3 Nanocristaux de silicium
1.16.4 Les SSD
1.17L’alimentation électrique du système
1.17.1 La recharge par induction
1.18Le disque dur
1.18.1 La mécanique du HD
1.18.2 Le format du HD
1.18.3 Défragmentation du HD
1.18.4 Partitionnement du HD
1.18.5 Les différentes structures de fichiers
1.19l’architecture PCMCIA
1.20le floppy FD
1.21les streamers
1.22-
1.23les disques magnéto-optiques
1.24les Cd et DVD Rom et Ram
1.24.1 Les graveurs
1.24.2 DVD – et + R/RW
1.24.3 Blue Ray
1.24.4 La stockage holographique
1.24.5 DVD-RAM
1.25les cartes vidéo
1.25.1 Résolution et taux d’images
1.25.2 Les formats de fichiers
1.25.3 –
1.25.4 Les cartes accélératrices 3D
1.25.5 Les bibliothèques
1.25.6 La compression des données
1.25.7 Les normes graphiques
1.26 les bases de registres
2 Les périphériques
2.1 les écrans
2.1.1 écran cathodique
2.1.2 écran LCD
2.1.2.1 Les différents états des cristaux
2.1.2.2 La polarisation
2.1.3 écran plasma
2.1.4 écran électroluminescent organique
2.1.5 les projecteurs
2.1.6 les diodes électroluminescentes
2.1.7 les panneaux électroluminescents
2.1.8 écran fluorescent
2.1.9 écrans FED
2.1.10 écrans SED
2.2 les imprimantes
2.2.1 les imprimantes matricielles
2.2.2 les imprimantes à jet d’encre
2.2.2.1 Le procédé thermique
2.2.2.2 Le procédé piézoélectrique
2.2.3 Les imprimantes à encre solide
2.2.4 Les imprimantes laser
2.2.5 Les imprimantes thermiques
2.2.6 Les imprimantes à transfert thermique
2.2.7 Les imprimantes à LEDS
2.2.8 Le standart Postscript
2.2.9 Le papier électronique
2.3 le pavé tactile
2.6 les technologies de communication
2.7 la carte son
2.7.1 Les hauts-parleurs
2.8 la souris
2.9 le stylet
2.10 le trackbal
2.11 Le cablage
2.12 Le clavier
2.12.1 Les touches à bascule
2.12.2 Le code ASCII
2.12.3 Les branchements
2.13 Le scanner
3. Les serveurs
3.1 les serveurs
3.2 le système RAID
3.3 organisation et administration des documents

Formation Interface communication 95

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