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Titre: L’intelligence artificielle distribuée appliquée aux jeux d’équipe situés dans un milieu dynamique : l’exemple de la RoboCup

Auteurs: Benjamin DRIEU

Ecole: Université Paris 8

Résumé: Ce mémoire décrit la conception et l’implémentation d’une équipe de robots footballeurs simulés par un ordinateur. Celle-ci est gérée au moyen d’un système multiagents dans lequel chaque agent modélise un robot footballeur. Le cadre utilisé pour implémenter cette simulation est la RoboCup, une compétition internationale de football robotique et de football simulé. L’implémentation de cette équipe de robots simulés tient compte des problématiques du milieu (fortement dynamique et bruité) dans lequel les agents évoluent. Cette implémentation fournit un mécanisme pour contrôler les erreurs dans l’exécution des plans des agents, ainsi qu’un mécanisme de visualisation des actions en cours et un mécanisme de modélisation par hypothèses du comportement des coéquipiers.

Ce mémoire traitera aussi des problématiques de la conception et de l’implémentation d’une équipe en général ainsi que d’un système multi-agents dans un milieu dynamique. La RoboCup servira ici de cadre de test d’implémentations des systèmes multi-agents.

Extrait du sommaire:

1 Introduction 5
1.1 Présentation 5
1.2 Organisation de ce mémoire 8
2 Contraintes d’un environnement dynamique 11
2.1 Le jeu d’équipe : une nature dynamique et distribuée 12
2.2 Problématiques 13
2.2.1 L’état du monde 13
2.2.2 Le temps réel 14
2.2.3 L’imprédictibilité de l’environnement 15
2.2.4 La communication bruitée 15
3 La RoboCup : un terrain d’application de la programmation agent 17
3.1 Histoire de la RoboCup 18
3.2 La catégorie simulation 19
3.2.1 Le simulateur 20
3.2.2 Les récepteurs simulés 21
3.2.3 Les effecteurs simulés 23
3.2.4 L’agent entraîneur 24
3.2.5 L’agent arbitre 25
3.2.6 Déroulement d’une rencontre 26
3.3 Évolution de la RoboCup 27
3.4 La RescueCup 27
4 Une implémentation d’équipe pour la simulation RoboCup 30
4.1 Langage d’implémentation 31
4.2 Architecture de l’agent 32
4.3 Interfaces avec l’environnement 34
4.4 Représentation de l’environnement 35
4.5 La planification 36
4.6 La visualisation 42
5 À la base du jeu d’équipe, l’individu 45
5.1 Un agent vu comme processus 45
5.2 Les architectures individuelles 47
5.2.1 Quelques exemples d’architectures individuelles 48
5.2.2 Les composants d’un agent 50
5.3 Une classification 53
5.3.1 Les agents réactifs 54
5.3.2 Les agents intentionnels 54
5.3.3 Les agents autonomes 55
5.3.4 Les agents adaptatifs 56
5.3.5 Les agents mobiles 57
5.3.6 Les agents flexibles 58
5.3.7 Les agents sociaux 58
6 Décisions et plans coopératifs dans le jeu d’équipe 60
6.1 L’individu vu comme un membre d’une architecture sociale 61
6.2 La coopération comme base du fonctionnement d’un système multiagents. 62
6.2.1 La coopération et la communication 63
6.2.2 Comprendre son partenaire 66
6.2.3 Partager des buts 66
6.2.4 Partager des tâches 67
6.2.5 Savoir planifier 68
6.2.6 Adopter une attitude 69
6.2.7 Tolérer les pannes 70
6.3 Le cas du jeu d’équipe 72
6.3.1 Gérer les conflits 73
6.3.2 Adopter une attitude passive 74
6.3.3 Communiquer en destination de tous 74
6.3.4 Coopérer contre un adversaire 75
6.3.5 La programmation orientée équipe 76
7 Conclusion 78


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