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Titre: INTRODUCTION au microprocesseur

Auteurs: M. DALMAU

Ecole: IUT de Bayonne

Résumé: On peut donner du terme microprocesseur la définition suivante : « Composant renfermant dans un seul boîtier l’unité de contrôle et l’unité de traitement d’une machine informatique de type VON NEUMANN » Cette définition exclut volontairement :
– Les composants en plusieurs boîtiers (micros en tranches)
– Les architectures non VON NEUMANN (GAPP , Transputers)
– Les microcontrôleurs qui incluent d’autres composantes des systèmes informatiques (mémoire, entrées/sorties)
La vocation de ces composants est de constituer l’unité centrale de micro-ordinateurs et, à l’heure actuelle, de mini-ordinateurs. Toutefois leur prix raisonnable et leurs performances permettent leur utilisation dans des systèmes informatiques dédiés (concentrateurs de lignes, noeuds de réseaux, pilotes de robots etc).

Extrait du sommaire:

INTRODUCTION 1
1 Définition d’un microprocesseur 1
2 Historique 1
LES ANCÊTRES 4
1 Les 4 bits 4
2 Les 8 bits 4
3 Un exemple le 6800 5
3.1 Architecture interne 5
3.2 Les registres 6
3.3 Les opérandes 6
3.4 Les instructions 6
3.5 La mémoire et l’adressage 8
3.6 Quelques remarques 8
LES MICROPROCESSEURS ACTUELS 10
1 Présentation générale 10
2 La famille INTEL 11
3 La famille MOTOROLA 13
LES MICROPROCESSEURS INTEL 16
1 Les 8086 / 8088 / 80186 et 80188 16
1.1 Architecture interne 16
1.2 Registres 17
1.3 Les opérandes 18
1.4 Les instructions 18
1.5 La mémoire et l’adressage 21
1.6 L’horloge 22
1.7 Les Entrées/Sorties 22
1.8 Les interruptions 22
1.9 Sémaphores 23
1.10 Compatibilité 23
2 Le 80286 25
2.1 Architecture interne 25
2.2 Les registres 26
2.3 Les opérandes 26
2.4 Les instructions 26
2.5 L’adressage de la mémoire 27
2.6 Les privilèges 28
2.7 La protection 29
2.8 Le changement de tâche 29
2.9 Les interruptions 29
2.10 L’horloge 29
Les Microprocesseurs M. DALMAU, IUT de Bayonne 103
2.11 Compatibilité 30
3 Le 80386 31
3.1 Architecture interne 31
3.2 Les registres 31
3.3 Les opérandes 33
3.4 Les instructions 33
3.5 L’adressage de la mémoire 34
3.6 La pagination 34
3.7 Les privilèges et les changements de tâche 35
3.8 Les interruptions 35
3.9 L’horloge 35
3.10 Compatibilité 36
4 Le 80486 37
4.1 Architecture interne 37
4.2 Les registres et les opérandes 37
4.3 Les instructions 37
4.4 La gestion de la mémoire 38
4.5 L’horloge 38
4.6 Compatibilité 38
5 Les coprocesseurs arithmétiques 40
5.1 Architecture interne des coprocesseurs INTEL 8087 , 80287 et 80387 40
5.2 Représentation des données 41
5.3 Les coprocesseurs arithmétiques de la famille INTEL 41
6 Le Pentium (P5) 42
6.1 Architecture interne 42
6.2 Les registres et les instructions 43
6.3 La gestion de la mémoire 43
6.4 Prédiction d’instructions 44
6.5 Les réels 44
7 Le Pentium MMX (P55C) 45
7.1 Architecture interne 45
7.2 Les registres et les instructions 45
7.3 Mémoire 46
7.4 Horloge 46
8 Le Pentium Pro ou P6 47
8.1 Architecture interne et Fonctionnement 47
8.2 Horloge 48
9 Le Pentium II ou Klamath 49
10 Le P7 ou Merced 49
10.1 Principes 49
10.2 Instructions 49
10.3 Branchements 50
10.4 Erreurs de mémoire 50
10.5 Horloge 50
11 Le P7 ou Merced 50
LES MICROPROCESSEURS MOTOROLA 52
Les Microprocesseurs M. DALMAU, IUT de Bayonne 104
1 Le 68000 et le 68008 52
1.1 Architecture interne 52
1.2 Les Registres 53
1.3 Les opérandes 53
1.4 Les instructions 53
1.5 Mémoire et adressage 56
1.6 Horloge 57
1.7 Les Entrées/Sorties 58
1.8 Privilèges 58
1.9 Les Interruptions 58
1.10 Environnement multiprocesseur 59
2 Le 68010 et le 68012 60
2.1 Architecture interne 60
2.2 Les registres 60
2.3 Les opérandes 60
2.4 Les instructions 60
2.5 Mémoire et Adressage 61
2.6 Horloge 61
2.7 Les Entrées/Sorties 62
2.8 Privilèges 62
2.9 Les Interruptions 62
2.10 Environnement multiprocesseur 62
3 Le 68020 64
3.1 Architecture interne 64
3.2 Registres 65
3.3 Les opérandes 65
3.4 Les instructions 65
3.5 Mémoire et adressage 67
3.6 Horloge 69
3.7 Les Entrées/Sorties 69
3.8 Privilèges 69
3.9 Les interruptions 69
3.10 Environnement multiprocesseur et coprocesseur 70
4 Le 68030 72
4.1 Architecture interne 72
4.2 Les Registres 73
4.3 Les instructions. 73
4.4 Mémoire et Adressage 74
4.5 La pagination 75
4.6 Horloge 76
4.7 Les autres caractéristiques 77
5 Le 68040 78
5.1 Architecture interne 78
5.2 Fonctionnement de l’unité centrale 78
5.3 Calcul des branchements 79
5.4 Exceptions 79
5.5 Gestion des antémémoires et de la mémoire 79
6 Le 68060 81
6.1 Architecture interne 81
6.2 Fonctionnement du 68060 81
6.3 Prédiction de branchements 82
6.4 Les antémémoires 83
7 Les coprocesseurs 84
8 La famille Power PC 85
8.1 Les MPC 601 , 602 et 603 88
8.1.1 Architecture 88
8.1.2 Les registres et les opérandes 91
8.1.3 Instructions 92
8.1.4 Test et mise au point 94
8.1.5 Le MPC 603 94
8.1.6 Le MPC 602 94
8.1.7 Horloge 94
8.2 Le MPC 604 95
8.2.1 Architecture 95
8.2.2 Horloge 96
8.3 Le MPC620 97
8.3.1 Architecture 97
8.3.2 Mémoire 98
8.3.3 Registres et opérandes 99
8.3.4 Horloge 99
8.4 La troisième génération (G3) 100
8.5 La quatrième génération (G4) 100
8.6 La cinquième génération (2K) 100
CONCLUSION 101

Cours Microcontrôleur microprocesseur 59

Télécharger le fichier PDF: INTRODUCTION au microprocesseur

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