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Titre: Composants non linéaires à semi-conducteurs


Ecole: ESPCI paris

Résumé: De façon simplifiée, un conducteur est un matériau qui conduit l’électricité grâce à la présence de charges ou porteurs de charges mobiles en son sein. Dans les solides ces charges sont en général des électrons. Les isolants quant à eux sont des matériaux dans lesquels les charges ou porteurs de charges sont très rares ou inexistants.

Bases élémentaires de la théorie des bandes : Dans un conducteur solide, à cause de l’interaction entre les atomes, il peut apparaitre un niveau d’énergie quantifié au dessus du niveau d’énergie des orbitales de chaque atome dans lequel les électrons peuvent se déplacer. C’est la bande de conduction présentée figure 1. Cette bande est séparée de la bande de valence par une bande interdite. La bande de valence résulte de la mise en commun d’électrons périphériques dans les liaisons covalentes. L’existence et la taille de la bande interdite dépend du ou des matériaux constituants le solide, de sa structure (amorphe ou cristallin) et de sa température.

Extrait du sommaire:

1 Semi-conducteurs
1.1 Bases élémentaires de la théorie des bandes
1.2 Principaux semi-conducteurs utilisés en électronique
1.2.1 Exemple du silicium
1.2.2 Conduction par trous
1.2.3 Recombinaisons électrons-trous
1.3 Dopages
2 La jonction PN
2.1 Écrantage10
2.2 La jonction PN comme composant électronique : La diode
2.3 Caractéristique statique courant/tension de la diode
3 Utilisation des diodes
3.1 Stratégies de calcul
3.2 Droite de charge
3.3 Montages de base
3.3.1 Redressement simple alternance
3.3.2 Redressement double alternance
3.3.3 Écrêtage (clamping)
3.3.4 Détection de crêtes
3.3.5 Logique à diodes
3.3.6 Diode de roue libre
3.3.7 Pompe à diode
4 Autres types de diodes
4.1 Diodes Zener
4.2 Diodes Électroluminescentes (LED)
4.3 Varicaps
4.4 Diodes PIN
4.5 Diodes Schottky
4.6 Diodes GUN (Hyperfréquences)
5 Interaction avec la lumière
5.1 Photopiles
5.2 Photodiodes
6 Critères de choix d’une diode
7 Transistors
7.1 Qu’est ce qu’un transistor ?
7.2 Utilisation
8 Transistors à effet de champ
8.1 MOS canal N (NMOS)
8.2 MOS canal P (PMOS)
8.3 Caractéristiques statiques des transistors NMOS, modèle de Schichman et Hodges
8.3.1 Courant de grille
8.3.2 Courant drain-source
8.4 Validité du modèle
8.4.1 Paramètres d’influences
8.5 Stratégies de calcul : schémas équivalents
8.6 Caractéristique statique des transistors PMOS
8.6.1 Mises en oeuvre comparées des transistors NMOS et PMOS
8.7 Transistors MOS à apauvrissement
9 Applications des transistors MOS
9.1 MOS en Commutation
9.1.1 NMOS en pull-down
9.1.2 PMOS en pull-up
9.1.3 Exemples d’application d’un NMOS en pull-down. : Pilotage d’une LED ou d’un relais par une porte logique
9.2 Interrupteurs analogiques (Analog switches)
9.3 Portes logiques CMOS
9.3.1 L’inverseur MOS
9.3.2 Quelques autres portes CMOS
9.4 MOS en Amplification
9.4.1 Petit signal
9.4.2 Schéma équivalent petit signal
9.4.3 Méthodologie d’analyse du fonctionnement en petit signal d’un amplificateur à MOS
10 Transistors bipolaires à jonction
10.1 Fonctionnement
10.2 Caractéristiques
10.3 Paramètres d’influences
10.3.1 Effet de la Température
10.3.2 Variation de b avec la fréquence
11 Applications des transistors à jonction
11.1 BJT en Commutation
11.2 BJT en Amplification
11.2.1 Schéma équivalent petit signal
11.2.2 Les trois montages de base des transistors bipolaires
11.2.3 Polarisation et emballement Thermique
11.2.4 Mise en oeuvre d’un montage à émetteur commun, montage Cascode

électron libre modèle d'une diode

Comparaisons des caractéristiques PMOS et NMOS

Formation-Composant-électronique-cours 13

Télécharger le fichier PDF: Composants non linéaires à semi-conducteurs

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