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Titre: Les dispositifs de reproduction des fréquences les plus basses en sonorisation

Auteurs: SAILLANT Pierrick

Ecole : École nationale supérieure Louis Lumière

Pages : 120

Résumé : Dans le domaine de la sonorisation, les basses fréquences posent de nombreux problèmes, c’est grave. En effet, aujourd’hui, les événements de musiques amplifiées nécessitent des systèmes de diffusions puissants permettant une reproduction de qualité pour l’ensemble du public. Dans la conception d’un système de diffusion travaillant dans les basses fréquences, il est nécessaire de faire des choix en fonction des objectifs du système et des moyens mis à disposition.

Nous commencerons par définir le domaine d’étude : l’étendue spectrale et le type d’évènements. Ceci nous permettra ainsi de cibler le contexte. Cette analyse des mécanismes mis en jeu dans la perception des basses fréquences ainsi que l’observation du rôle des graves dans la production discographique nous permettra ensuite de définir les objectifs auxquels doit répondre un système travaillant dans les basses fréquences.

Nous observerons ensuite les nombreuses solutions permettant, en associant plusieurs enceintes identiques, de contrôler la directivité d’un système. Ces solutions sont basées sur des modèles théoriques et dans certains cas peuvent être appliquées directement par l’utilisateur. La validation des modèles théoriques se fera par la mesure. Ainsi, nous pourrons proposer plusieurs solutions pour l’implantation des enceintes travaillant dans les basses fréquences. L’ensemble des solutions (implantation et contrôle de la directivité) se fait en adéquation avec la situation. Chaque situation est un cas particulier, c’est pourquoi il est important de connaître les configurations possibles et leurs caractéristiques.

Nous finirons par l’analyse d’un cas pratique : Le festival des Artefacts édition 2010 au Zénith de Strasbourg. Cet exemple permettra d’observer sur un cas réel certaines théories énoncées précédemment. Nous étudierons ici la conception, la réalisation et les performances du système de diffusion travaillant dans les basses fréquences. La conception d’un système de diffusion est un exercice compliqué. Il est nécessaire de connaitre L’implication de chaque choix. Cette étude permet de faire un état des lieux des résultats des différentes techniques actuelles. L’ensemble des analyses présentées sont basé sur des réponses Fréquentielles (en régime stationnaire). Néanmoins, on peut s’interroger sur l’influence des réponses temporelles pour la caractérisation d’un système de diffusion travaillant dans les basses fréquences. De même, ce travail ne permet pas d’observer l’influence du lieu qui est un paramètre important.

PFE-Rapport de projet de fin d’étude (86)

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