Découvrez notre Chaîne YouTube "Ingénierie et Projets"
Découvrez notre Chaîne Secondaire "Information Neuronale et l'Ingénierie du Cerveau"

Machine de tri automatique avec arduino Schéma de principe

Objectifs

  • Savoir contrôler un servomoteur avec Matlab
  • Savoir établir la liaison série entre Matlab & Arduino
  • Savoir comment détecter une couleur dans une image
  • Savoir utiliser un seuil optimal d’une image
  • Savoir utiliser quelques fonctions de morphologie mathématique
  • Et autres astuces.

Vidéo démonstration

Fonctionnement

Le projet dans sa globalité permet de trier des objets en fonction de leurs couleurs. Par exemple le tri des balles, pièces, etc. C’est un système détection et poursuite d’objets basés sur la détection des couleurs. Il est constitué par les éléments suivants :

Caméra : comme tout système de vision, une caméra est un capteur d’image. Elle fournit l’image de la scène. On utilisera la caméra de l’ordinateur.

Matlab : Son rôle est la récupération des images de la caméra, traitement et analyse d’images. Il coconnait et traque l’une ou plusieurs des trois composantes d’une image (Red (R), Green (G) et Bleu (B)). Le programme filtre l’ensemble de l’information dans l’image et préserve uniquement les couleurs cibles. Par exemple si on montre une balle rouge avec sa main, alors la zone de la balle sera détectée (la main et le reste de la scène sera filtrés et remplacés par une zone noire (pixels nuls)). Si on montre deux balles rouge et bleu, le programme indique la présence des deux couleurs, ou trois balles, etc.

La lecture de la caméra se fait en boucle ainsi que l’ensemble des traitements. Lorsqu’une couleur est détectée, l’information est envoyée à la carte Arduino via la liaison série. La valeur envoyée indique le nombre des composantes détectées. En effet, avec trois composantes on peut avoir 8 combinaisons possibles : 000-111 ou de 0 à 7.

Carte Aduino : Elle récupère la donnée  envoyée par le logiciel Matlab comprise entre 0 et 7 et la transforme en commande.

Les LEDs : les trois LED rouge, vert et bleu s’activent lorsqu’une une ou plusieurs composante couleur est détectée. En effet, on duplique les valeurs acquises (0-7) sur les LED. Exemples :

  • Valeur =(0) 000 : Trois LEDs éteintes
  • Valeur =(1)001 : LED rouge allumée, détection de la composante rouge uniquement
  • Valeur =(2)010 : LED bleu allumée, détection de la composante bleu uniquement
  • Valeur =(7)111 : Trois LEDs Allumé (détection de trois balles)

Servomoteur : le servomoteur est un simulateur d’un système de tri des pièces. On imagine l’arrivée des pièces dans un tapis roulant, un système d’aguillage à base du servomoteur se trouve à l’extrémité du tapis. Il dirige les pièces dans trois boîtes : la première pour les pièces rouges, la deuxième pour les rouges et la dernière pour les bleus. En effet, dans ce cas on ne peut détecter que l’une des trois couleurs (001 (1) ou 010 (2) ou 100(4)). Les autres combinaisons sont ignorées par le programme (voir la suite pour plus des détails).

Commande servomoteur SG90

Projets indispensables pour la compréhension de le suite

  1. ARDUINO CLAP CLAP

  2. RECONNAISSANCE DES COULEURS AVEC MATLAB ET ARDUINO 1/2

  3. RECONNAISSANCE DES COULEURS AVEC MATLAB ET ARDUINO 2/2

Programme Matlab

Ouverture du port série (Open.m)

function SerialCOM = Open()

% Paramètres de la liaison série (COM)

BauValue=115200;            % Vitesse
NumBits=8;                  % Nombre de bits

% Création d'un objet Serial Port
SerialCOM = serial('COM3','BaudRate',BauValue,'DataBits', NumBits, 'Parity', 'none');
SerialCOM.Terminator = 'LF';
set(SerialCOM, 'Timeout',2);

% Connexion du port
fopen(SerialCOM);

end
...
SerialCOM = Open();
...

Création d’un objet vidéo

vid=videoinput('winvideo',1);
set(vid,'ReturnedColorSpace','RGB');

Obtenir un snapshot de la caméra

imm=getsnapshot(vid); % Obtenir l'image actuelle
im_rgb=imresize(imm,0.5); % Réduction de 50%

Récupérer les composantes R, G et B

...
im_gray=rgb2gray(im_rgb);
im_R=im_rgb(:,:,1);im_r=imsubtract(im_R,im_gray);
im_G=im_rgb(:,:,2);im_g=imsubtract(im_G,im_gray);
im_B=im_rgb(:,:,3);im_b=imsubtract(im_B,im_gray);
...

Composante rouge après soustraction Composante vert après soustraction

Seuillage + Ouverture

...
val_r=abs(max(double(im_r(:)))-20); seuil_r=val_r/255;  % Seuil de l'image (variable)
val_g=abs(max(double(im_g(:)))-20); seuil_g=val_g/255;
val_b=abs(max(double(im_b(:)))-20); seuil_b=val_b/255;

Seuil_min=50;     % Seuil minimal fixe ( Problème du à l'absence de la couleur cible)
im_bw=im2bw(im_r,seuil_r);im_bw1=im_bw & (im_r >Seuil_min);
se=strel('disk',10); im_out_r=imclose(im_bw1,se);

im_bw=im2bw(im_g,seuil_g);im_bw1=im_bw & (im_g >(Seuil_min/5));
im_out_g=imclose(im_bw1,se);

im_bw=im2bw(im_b,seuil_b);im_bw1=im_bw & (im_b >Seuil_min);
im_out_b=imclose(im_bw1,se);
...

Calcul de l’état des  LED (0 -7)

...
% Nombre des pixels de la couleur R, G, B
taille_r=length(find(im_out_r(:)==1));
taille_g=length(find(im_out_g(:)==1));
taille_b=length(find(im_out_b(:)==1));

% Activation de la LED par le nombre de pixels
Seuil_detec=100;
LED_r=double(taille_r>Seuil_detec);
LED_g=double(taille_g>Seuil_detec);
LED_b=double(taille_b>Seuil_detec);
LED=[LED_r LED_g LED_b];
...

 Conversion et transmission de la valeur à la carte Arduino

...
% Conversion BCD => Decimal
LED_val =LED_r*4+ LED_g*2 + LED_b % RGB

% Transfert de la valeur
fprintf(SerialCOM,'%d\n',LED_val);
...

Programme Matlab Complet

close all; clc;

%% Ouverture du port série

SerialCOM = Open(); % A commenter après la 1ère exécution

%% Création de l'objet vidéo

vid=videoinput('winvideo',1);
set(vid,'ReturnedColorSpace','RGB');

%% Détection de la composante rouge dans l'image

while 1
    
    % Obtenir l'image actuelle
    imm=getsnapshot(vid); 
    im_rgb=imresize(imm,0.5); % Réduction de 50%
    
    % Récupérer les composantes R, G et B
    im_gray=rgb2gray(im_rgb);
    im_R=im_rgb(:,:,1);im_r=imsubtract(im_R,im_gray);
    im_G=im_rgb(:,:,2);im_g=imsubtract(im_G,im_gray);
    im_B=im_rgb(:,:,3);im_b=imsubtract(im_B,im_gray);
    
    %     subplot(221); imshow(im_rgb); title('Image RGB');
    %     subplot(222); imshow(im_r); title('R Après soustraction');
    %     subplot(223); imshow(im_g); title('G Après soustraction');
    %     subplot(224); imshow(im_b); title('B Après soustraction');
    
    %% Seuillage de l'image (binérisation)
    
    val_r=abs(max(double(im_r(:)))-20); seuil_r=val_r/255;  % Seuil de l'image (variable)
    val_g=abs(max(double(im_g(:)))-20); seuil_g=val_g/255;
    val_b=abs(max(double(im_b(:)))-20); seuil_b=val_b/255;
    
    Seuil_min=50;     % Seuil minimal fixe ( Problème du à l'absence de la couleur cible)
    im_bw=im2bw(im_r,seuil_r);im_bw1=im_bw & (im_r >Seuil_min);
    se=strel('disk',10); im_out_r=imclose(im_bw1,se);
    
    im_bw=im2bw(im_g,seuil_g);im_bw1=im_bw & (im_g >(Seuil_min/5));
    im_out_g=imclose(im_bw1,se);
    
    im_bw=im2bw(im_b,seuil_b);im_bw1=im_bw & (im_b >Seuil_min);
    im_out_b=imclose(im_bw1,se);
    
    %% Activation des LEDs (0-7)
    
    % Nombre des pixels de la couleur R, G, B
    taille_r=length(find(im_out_r(:)==1));
    taille_g=length(find(im_out_g(:)==1));
    taille_b=length(find(im_out_b(:)==1));
    
    % Activation de la LED par le nombre de pixels
    Seuil_detec=100;
    LED_r=double(taille_r>Seuil_detec);
    LED_g=double(taille_g>Seuil_detec);
    LED_b=double(taille_b>Seuil_detec);
    LED=[LED_r LED_g LED_b];
    
    %% Affichage
    
    subplot(221); imshow(im_rgb);   title('RGB');
    subplot(222); imshow(im_out_r); title('R');
    subplot(223); imshow(im_out_g); title('G');
    subplot(224); imshow(im_out_b); title('B');
    
    %% Transmission à l'Arduino
    
    % Conversion BCD => Décimal
    LED_val =LED_r*4+ LED_g*2 + LED_b % RGB
    
    % Transfert de la valeur
    fprintf(SerialCOM,'%d\n',LED_val);
    
end

%% Port Delete (Previous port if exist)

Delete(SerialCOM); % A exécuter seule pour libérer le port

Programme Arduino

  • LED_r: PIN 5
  • LED_g: PIN 6
  • LED_b: PIN 7
  • ServoMoteur: PIN 11

Lecture du port série en format entier

LED_val = Serial.parseInt();

Allumage des LED en fonction de la valeur acquise

void SetLEDs(int LED_vall, int LED_r_PINN, int LED_g_PINN, int LED_b_PINN )
{
  switch (LED_vall) 
  {
    case 0:
      digitalWrite(LED_b_PINN, LOW);
      digitalWrite(LED_g_PINN, LOW);
      digitalWrite(LED_r_PINN, LOW);
      break;
    case 1:// B
      digitalWrite(LED_b_PINN, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(LED_g_PINN, LOW);
      digitalWrite(LED_r_PINN, LOW);
      break;
    case 2:
      digitalWrite(LED_b_PINN, LOW);
      digitalWrite(LED_g_PINN, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(LED_r_PINN, LOW);
      break;
    case 3:
      digitalWrite(LED_b_PINN, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(LED_g_PINN, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(LED_r_PINN, LOW);
      break;
    case 4:
      digitalWrite(LED_b_PINN, LOW);
      digitalWrite(LED_g_PINN, LOW);
      digitalWrite(LED_r_PINN, HIGH);
      break;
    case 5:
      digitalWrite(LED_b_PINN, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(LED_g_PINN, LOW);
      digitalWrite(LED_r_PINN, HIGH);
      break;
    case 6:
      digitalWrite(LED_b_PINN, LOW);
      digitalWrite(LED_g_PINN, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(LED_r_PINN, HIGH);
      break;
    case 7:
      digitalWrite(LED_b_PINN, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(LED_g_PINN, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(LED_r_PINN, HIGH);
      break;
  }
}
...
SetLEDs( LED_val, LED_r_PIN, LED_g_PIN, LED_b_PIN);
...

Contrôle du servomoteur

  • Détection de la couleur Rouge : Angle 20 degré
  • Détection de la couleur Vert : Angle 20+70=90 degré
  • Détection de la couleur Bleu : Angle 20+140=160 degré
void SetServoM(int LED_vall)
{
  switch (LED_vall) 
  {
    case 1:
      SERVO1.write(20);
      delay(100);    
      break;
    case 2:
      SERVO1.write(90); 
      delay(100);   
      break;
    case 4:
      SERVO1.write(160);
      delay(100);    
      break;  
  }
}
...
SetServoM(LED_val); 
...

Programme complet

#include <Servo.h>

/*
LED_r:    PIN 5
LED_g:    PIN 6
LED_b:    PIN 7
ServoMoteur: PIN 11
*/
Servo SERVO1;
const int LED_r_PIN=5; 
const int LED_g_PIN=6; 
const int LED_b_PIN=7; 
const int ServoM_PIN=11; 

int LED_val=0;

void setup() 
{
  // LED R, G et B 
  pinMode(LED_r_PIN, OUTPUT);   
  pinMode(LED_g_PIN, OUTPUT);   
  pinMode(LED_b_PIN, OUTPUT);    
  
  // Initialisation
  digitalWrite(LED_r_PIN, LOW);
  digitalWrite(LED_g_PIN, LOW);
  digitalWrite(LED_b_PIN, LOW);

  // Servo
  SERVO1.attach(ServoM_PIN);
  
  // UART
  Serial.begin(115200);
}

void loop() 
{ 
  LED_val = Serial.parseInt();
  SetLEDs( LED_val, LED_r_PIN, LED_g_PIN, LED_b_PIN);
  SetServoM(LED_val); 
}

void SetLEDs(int LED_vall, int LED_r_PINN, int LED_g_PINN, int LED_b_PINN )
{
  switch (LED_vall) 
  {
    case 0:
      digitalWrite(LED_b_PINN, LOW);
      digitalWrite(LED_g_PINN, LOW);
      digitalWrite(LED_r_PINN, LOW);
      break;
    case 1:// B
      digitalWrite(LED_b_PINN, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(LED_g_PINN, LOW);
      digitalWrite(LED_r_PINN, LOW);
      break;
    case 2:
      digitalWrite(LED_b_PINN, LOW);
      digitalWrite(LED_g_PINN, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(LED_r_PINN, LOW);
      break;
    case 3:
      digitalWrite(LED_b_PINN, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(LED_g_PINN, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(LED_r_PINN, LOW);
      break;
    case 4:
      digitalWrite(LED_b_PINN, LOW);
      digitalWrite(LED_g_PINN, LOW);
      digitalWrite(LED_r_PINN, HIGH);
      break;
    case 5:
      digitalWrite(LED_b_PINN, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(LED_g_PINN, LOW);
      digitalWrite(LED_r_PINN, HIGH);
      break;
    case 6:
      digitalWrite(LED_b_PINN, LOW);
      digitalWrite(LED_g_PINN, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(LED_r_PINN, HIGH);
      break;
    case 7:
      digitalWrite(LED_b_PINN, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(LED_g_PINN, HIGH);
      digitalWrite(LED_r_PINN, HIGH);
      break;
  }
}

void SetServoM(int LED_vall)
{
  switch (LED_vall) 
  {
    case 1:
      SERVO1.write(20);
      delay(100);    
      break;
    case 2:
      SERVO1.write(90); 
      delay(100);   
      break;
    case 4:
      SERVO1.write(160);
      delay(100);    
      break;  
  }
}

Téléchargement

Photos du projet

Machine de tri automatique BLEU

Machine de tri automatique ROUGE

Tout les projets Matlab & µC

Le blog contient des publicités, elles permettent de financer l'hébergement et maintenir le blog en fonctionnement. Vous pouvez utiliser adblock pour une lecture sans publicités.
We use cookies to personalise content and ads, to provide social media features and to analyse our traffic. We also share information about your use of our site with our social media, advertising and analytics partners.
Cookies settings
Accept
Privacy & Cookie policy
Privacy & Cookies policy
Cookie name Active

Privacy Policy

What information do we collect?

We collect information from you when you register on our site or place an order. When ordering or registering on our site, as appropriate, you may be asked to enter your: name, e-mail address or mailing address.

What do we use your information for?

Any of the information we collect from you may be used in one of the following ways: To personalize your experience (your information helps us to better respond to your individual needs) To improve our website (we continually strive to improve our website offerings based on the information and feedback we receive from you) To improve customer service (your information helps us to more effectively respond to your customer service requests and support needs) To process transactions Your information, whether public or private, will not be sold, exchanged, transferred, or given to any other company for any reason whatsoever, without your consent, other than for the express purpose of delivering the purchased product or service requested. To administer a contest, promotion, survey or other site feature To send periodic emails The email address you provide for order processing, will only be used to send you information and updates pertaining to your order.

How do we protect your information?

We implement a variety of security measures to maintain the safety of your personal information when you place an order or enter, submit, or access your personal information. We offer the use of a secure server. All supplied sensitive/credit information is transmitted via Secure Socket Layer (SSL) technology and then encrypted into our Payment gateway providers database only to be accessible by those authorized with special access rights to such systems, and are required to?keep the information confidential. After a transaction, your private information (credit cards, social security numbers, financials, etc.) will not be kept on file for more than 60 days.

Do we use cookies?

Yes (Cookies are small files that a site or its service provider transfers to your computers hard drive through your Web browser (if you allow) that enables the sites or service providers systems to recognize your browser and capture and remember certain information We use cookies to help us remember and process the items in your shopping cart, understand and save your preferences for future visits, keep track of advertisements and compile aggregate data about site traffic and site interaction so that we can offer better site experiences and tools in the future. We may contract with third-party service providers to assist us in better understanding our site visitors. These service providers are not permitted to use the information collected on our behalf except to help us conduct and improve our business. If you prefer, you can choose to have your computer warn you each time a cookie is being sent, or you can choose to turn off all cookies via your browser settings. Like most websites, if you turn your cookies off, some of our services may not function properly. However, you can still place orders by contacting customer service. Google Analytics We use Google Analytics on our sites for anonymous reporting of site usage and for advertising on the site. If you would like to opt-out of Google Analytics monitoring your behaviour on our sites please use this link (https://tools.google.com/dlpage/gaoptout/)

Do we disclose any information to outside parties?

We do not sell, trade, or otherwise transfer to outside parties your personally identifiable information. This does not include trusted third parties who assist us in operating our website, conducting our business, or servicing you, so long as those parties agree to keep this information confidential. We may also release your information when we believe release is appropriate to comply with the law, enforce our site policies, or protect ours or others rights, property, or safety. However, non-personally identifiable visitor information may be provided to other parties for marketing, advertising, or other uses.

Registration

The minimum information we need to register you is your name, email address and a password. We will ask you more questions for different services, including sales promotions. Unless we say otherwise, you have to answer all the registration questions. We may also ask some other, voluntary questions during registration for certain services (for example, professional networks) so we can gain a clearer understanding of who you are. This also allows us to personalise services for you. To assist us in our marketing, in addition to the data that you provide to us if you register, we may also obtain data from trusted third parties to help us understand what you might be interested in. This ‘profiling’ information is produced from a variety of sources, including publicly available data (such as the electoral roll) or from sources such as surveys and polls where you have given your permission for your data to be shared. You can choose not to have such data shared with the Guardian from these sources by logging into your account and changing the settings in the privacy section. After you have registered, and with your permission, we may send you emails we think may interest you. Newsletters may be personalised based on what you have been reading on theguardian.com. At any time you can decide not to receive these emails and will be able to ‘unsubscribe’. Logging in using social networking credentials If you log-in to our sites using a Facebook log-in, you are granting permission to Facebook to share your user details with us. This will include your name, email address, date of birth and location which will then be used to form a Guardian identity. You can also use your picture from Facebook as part of your profile. This will also allow us and Facebook to share your, networks, user ID and any other information you choose to share according to your Facebook account settings. If you remove the Guardian app from your Facebook settings, we will no longer have access to this information. If you log-in to our sites using a Google log-in, you grant permission to Google to share your user details with us. This will include your name, email address, date of birth, sex and location which we will then use to form a Guardian identity. You may use your picture from Google as part of your profile. This also allows us to share your networks, user ID and any other information you choose to share according to your Google account settings. If you remove the Guardian from your Google settings, we will no longer have access to this information. If you log-in to our sites using a twitter log-in, we receive your avatar (the small picture that appears next to your tweets) and twitter username.

Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act Compliance

We are in compliance with the requirements of COPPA (Childrens Online Privacy Protection Act), we do not collect any information from anyone under 13 years of age. Our website, products and services are all directed to people who are at least 13 years old or older.

Updating your personal information

We offer a ‘My details’ page (also known as Dashboard), where you can update your personal information at any time, and change your marketing preferences. You can get to this page from most pages on the site – simply click on the ‘My details’ link at the top of the screen when you are signed in.

Online Privacy Policy Only

This online privacy policy applies only to information collected through our website and not to information collected offline.

Your Consent

By using our site, you consent to our privacy policy.

Changes to our Privacy Policy

If we decide to change our privacy policy, we will post those changes on this page.
Save settings
Cookies settings

You have successfully subscribed to the newsletter

There was an error while trying to send your request. Please try again.

FPGA | Arduino | Matlab | Cours will use the information you provide on this form to be in touch with you and to provide updates and marketing.