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Titre: Introduction au traitement d’images | Détection de contours et segmentation
Auteurs: Yoann Sculo
Ecole: UTT

Résumé: Ce document est une introduction au traitement d’images s’intéressant notamment à la détection de contours et à la segmentation. Différents concepts y sont abordés : le filtrage et l’opérateur de convolution, la recherche de primitives et détection de contours, les opérateurs morphologie mathématiques et la détection et fermeture de régions. Le traitement d’images est de plus en plus utilisé dans de nombreux domaines pour l’interprétation et le contenu des images. Ce dossier s’inscrit dans le cadre de ma préparation personnelle à mon stage de fin d’études au CNES. Etant amené à travailler sur la segmentation avec récupération des contours, j’ai entrepris un travail de recherche et d’apprentissage sur ce domaine. L’idée étant d’avoir un premier aperçu des techniques de traitement d’images.

La compréhension du traitement d’images commence tout d’abord par la définition d’une image et de son acquisition. J’aborderai ensuite la notion de filtrage et de convolution et leur application à la détection de contours. Je parlerai ainsi des différents filtres utilisés dans ce cadre. Je m’occuperai ensuite des opérateurs morphologiques, puis porterai mon attention à la détection de régions. Je terminerai alors par une ouverture sur les possibilités de mise en oeuvre de ces techniques sur ordinateur.

Extrait du sommaire:

1 Les images 5
A Echantillonnage 5
B Quantification 5
C FFT et reconstruction d’image 6
D Notions d’histogramme et de seuillage 7
2 Filtrage 11
i Notion de voisinage 11
ii Application de filtres et introduction à la convolution 11
iii Filtrage et bruit 13
3 Recherche de primitives et détection de contours 18
A Approche basique par un exemple simple 18
B Approche par convolution 20
i Application de filtres 20
ii Détection de points 21
iii Détection de lignes 21
iv Détection de contours 22
C Approche par filtrage optimal 28
i Filtre de Canny 28
ii Filtre de Deriche 30
4 Opérateurs morphomathématiques 31
A Notions de base 31
B Dilatation 33
C Erosion 35
D Ouverture et fermeture – Combinaison Dilatation/Erosion 36
E Gradient morphologique 37
F Amincissement et squelettisation 39
i Transformée « tout ou rien » (Hit-or-Miss transformation) 39
ii Amincissement 40
5 Détection de régions 43
A Détection de régions par seuillage 43
B Détection de contours fermés 44
i Chaînage de contours 44
Yoann SCULO – P09
ii Code de Freeman 45
iii Fermeture de contours 46
C Transformée de Hough 47
i Algorithme 48
ii Détection de plusieurs droites 48
iii Transformée généralisée de Hough 49
6 Ouverture sur la programmation 49
Conclusion 51
Bibliographie 52

Formation-Traitement d'image-cours 11

Télécharger le fichier PDF: Introduction au traitement d’images | Détection de contours et segmentation

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