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Electronique et électricité

Titre: Electronique et électricité, introduction

Auteurs: Néant

Ecole: Néant

Résumé: Compte tenu du fait que cet ouvrage s’adresse à des débutants, nous partirons du principe que le lecteur n’a (presque) aucune connaissance en électricité ou en électronique, et pas davantage en mathématiques.

L’objectif de cette partie est d’apporter au lecteur le minimum vital dans le domaine théorique, c’està- dire des bases certes étroites, mais suffisantes (et nécessaires!) pour une initiation sérieuse et profitable à l’électronique. Grosso modo, disons que le contenu se situe entre la vulgarisation et un cours de seconde/terminale.

Certains lecteurs trouveront peut-être ce « minimum vital » encore trop ardu. Pas de panique, on pourra « sauter » les passages qui paraissent de prime abord trop complexes, et y revenir plus tard. La méthode consiste à ne retenir que les informations strictement indispensables et à les présenter de la manière la plus simple et la plus accessible, en évitant d’entrer dans des considérations trop abstraites ou des calculs fastidieux. Il parait en effet préférable pour un néophyte de se limiter à des notions essentielles et de bien les assimiler, plutôt que d’accumuler des connaissances approximatives et disparates.
Le « minimum vital » que nous nous fixons ici pour objectif sera complété, ultérieurement, lors de l’étude des composants. Il s’agit donc, dans un premier temps, d’acquérir des bases « génériques », avant de se pencher de plus près sur les propriétés et fonctions des différents composants.

Electricité et électronique
L’étude des phénomènes liés à l’électricité appartient à la physique, une science fondamentale qui a pour objectif de comprendre la structure et les propriétés de la matière, et de dégager, à partir de l’expérience, des lois aussi générales et universelles que possible. L’application pratique de ces lois permet ensuite de réaliser des dispositifs et appareils utiles au commun des mortels. Ainsi l’électronique a-t-elle pour vocation, in fine, de produire des objets: c’est avant tout, en dépit de sa proximité avec une science « pure et dure », une technique.

La principale différence entre l’électronique et l’électricité réside dans le fait que les composants électroniques (diodes, transistors, circuits intégrés.) sont réalisés à l’aide d’un matériau conducteur particulier, appelé semi-conducteur (silicium pour l’essentiel), au lieu des métaux et alliages traditionnels utilisés en électricité (cuivre.). La conduction électrique, dans les composants électroniques, peut par conséquent être contrôlée de manière infiniment plus subtile et sophistiquée que dans les composants « classiques ». En caricaturant un peu, on dira que les composants électriques sont commandés en « tout ou rien » à l’aide d’interrupteurs (on allume, on éteint.), tandis que les composants électroniques sont commandés par des signaux électriques dont on peut faire varier très précisément les paramètres.

Qui plus est, les composants électroniques se distinguent par une miniaturisation très poussée et des courants très faibles, alors que la plupart des composants électriques demeurent souvent assez encombrants.

Extrait du sommaire:

Méthode et objectifs
Electricité et électronique
Quelques symboles conventionnels
L’anglais en électronique

Exercice 1: dessiner un schéma électrique
• Exercice 2: calculer une résistance équivalente
• Exercice 3: appliquer la loi d’Ohm
• Exercice 4: appliquer la loi des noeuds (loi de Kirchhoff)
• Exercice 5: calculer un pont diviseur
• Exercice 6: appliquer la loi de Joule
• Exercice 7: tension continue, tension variable
• Exercice 8: caractéristique d’un dipôle
• Exercice 9: tension alternative

L’électronique: définition
• Les semi-conducteurs
• Avantages des composants à semi-conducteurs
• Un problème épineux: les dipôles non-linéaires
• Le transistor
• Qu’est-ce qu’un signal électrique?
• Les paramètres d’un signal analogique
• Signaux complexes
• Signaux parasites
• Signaux analogiques et signaux numériques
Le système binaire
• La logique booléenne
• Fonctions logiques
• Tables de vérité
• Logique séquentielle
• Bascules monostables
• Bascules bistables
• Les compteurs
• Quelques petites remarques en guise de conclusion

Formation-Composant-électronique-cours 7

Obtenir le fichier PDF: Electronique et électricité 

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