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Auteurs: Pierre CRUZALEBES

Ecole/Université: PSTJ

Résumé: On peut toujours distinguer deux grandes étapes de traitements à appliquer à une image CCD brute (qui vient juste d’être acquise) : le prétraitement et le traitement par lui-même. « Même la plus belle image du monde ne peut donner que ce qu’elle a » Toute image brute contient des effets indésirables, inhérents à la technologie du système CCD employé. Le rôle du prétraitement consiste à « nettoyer » l’image brute de ces effets pour extraire la valeur qui représente l’intensité lumineuse réellement tombée sur le pixel considéré. Le traitement d’image ne s’applique efficacement qu’aux seules images prétraitées…

Extrait du sommaire:
1.- Le prétraitement des images CCD 3
1.1.- Les corrections radiométriques (ou photométriques) 3
1.1.1.- L’image de la précharge. 5
1.1.2.- La soustraction du noir 6 Méthode classique 6 Méthode de l’optimisation du noir 6
1.1.3.- La division par la PLU 8
1.2.- Les corrections cosmétiques 10
2.- Le traitement numérique des images 12
2.1.- Les opérations ponctuelles 12
2.1.1.- Les opérations arithmétiques 12 Faisant intervenir une seule image de référence 12 Faisant intervenir au moins deux images de référence 12
2.1.2.- Les opérations ponctuelles statistiques 13
2.1.3.- Les transformations dans l’espace des couleurs 13
2.1.4.- Les transformations dans l’espace de polarisation 13
2.2.- Les corrections géométriques 13
2.2.1.- Les transformations 13
2.2.2.- Le rééchantillonnage 14
2.3.- Les filtrages 15
2.3.1.- Les filtrages spatiaux ou convolutions 15 Les filtres passe-haut 15 Les filtres passe-bas 15 La technique du masque flou 16 Les filtres statistiques 17 Les filtres morphologiques ou filtres de contours 18 La modification de l’histogramme 19
2.3.2.- Les filtrages fréquentiels 20 La transformation de Fourier 20 Les convolutions dans l’espace de Fourier. 22 Les corrélations 24
2.4.- La restauration des images ou déconvolution 24
2.4.1.- Le filtrage inverse 25
2.4.2.- Le filtrage de Wiener 25
2.4.3.- La déconvolution aveugle. 26
2.4.4.- L’algorithme de Van-Cittert 27
2.4.5.- L’algorithme de Lucy-Richardson 28
2.4.6.- L’algorithme du maximum d’entropie 29
2.4.7.- Algorithmes divers 29
2.4.8.- Domaine d’application des différentes méthodes 30
2.5.- La modélisation 30
2.5.1.- La modélisation stellaire 31
2.5.2.- La modélisation isophotale 32
2.5.3.- La modélisation du fond de ciel 32
3.- Références bibliographiques 32

Ondelettes et traitement du signal et d’image 5


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