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Titre: Notes de cours pour l’apprentissage de la programmation avec Python

Auteurs: Gérard Swinnen, Allen B. Downey, Allen B. Downey

Ecole: Institut St Jean Berchmans – Ste Marie, Wellesley college, Yorktown High School

Résumé: Les présentes notes ont été rédigées à l’intention des élèves qui suivent le cours Programmation et langages de l’option Sciences & informatique au 3e degré de transition de l’enseignement secondaire belge. Il s’agit d’un texte encore provisoire, qui s’inspire très largement de plusieurs documents disponibles sur l’Internet.

Nous proposons dans ces notes une démarche d’apprentissage certainement critiquable : il n’existe malheureusement pas encore une méthode idéale pour apprendre à programmer un ordinateur, et nous avons donc été amenés à effectuer un certain nombre de choix délicats, pour lesquels nous nous sommes efforcés de respecter les principes directeurs suivants :

L’apprentissage que nous visons doit être adapté au niveau de compréhension et aux connaissances générales d’un élève moyen. Nous nous refusons d’élaborer un cours qui soit réservé à une « élite » de petits génies.

  • Dans cette option d’études et à ce niveau, l’apprentissage doit rester généraliste : il doit mettre en évidence les invariants de la programmation et de l’informatique, sans se laisser entraîner vers une spécialisation quelconque. En particulier, il doit s’efforcer de rester aussi indépendant que possible des systèmes d’exploitation et langages propriétaires.
  • Les outils utilisés au cours de l’apprentissage doivent être modernes et performants, mais il faut aussi que l’élève puisse se les procurer en toute légalité à très bas prix pour son usage personnel. Toute notre démarche d’apprentissage repose en effet sur l’idée que l’élève devra très tôt mettre en chantier des réalisations personnelles qu’il pourra développer à sa guise.
  • L’élève qui apprend doit pouvoir rapidement réaliser de petites applications graphiques. Les étudiants auxquels on s’adresse sont en effet fort jeunes (en théorie, ils sont à peine arrivés à l’âge ou l’on commence à pouvoir faire des abstractions). Dans ce cours, nous avons pris le parti d’aborder très tôt la programmation d’une interface graphique, avant même d’avoir présenté l’ensemble des structures de données disponibles, parce que nous observons que les jeunes qui arrivent aujourd’hui dans nos classes « baignent » déjà dans une culture informatique à base de fenêtres et autres objets graphiques interactifs. S’ils choisissent d’apprendre la programmation, ils sont forcément impatients de créer par eux-mêmes des applications (peut-être très simples) où l’aspect graphique est déjà bien présent.

Cette approche un peu inhabituelle leur permettra en outre de se lancer très tôt dans de petits projets personnels, par lesquels ils pourront se sentir valorisés. Nous ne voulons pas masquer la complexité des notions à acquérir, mais nous cherchons avant tout à motiver et à encourager.

Par cette démarche, nous souhaitons également familiariser les étudiants le plus tôt possible avec le concept informatique d’objet, et ceci d’une manière très progressive. Nous voulons qu’ils puissent d’abord utiliser en abondance divers types d’objets préexistants (et notamment des objets graphiques), afin d’apprendre à exploiter efficacement les méthodes et attributs de ces objets. La construction d’objets personnalisés ne sera envisagée qu’un peu plus tard, lorsqu’une certaine familiarité avec les concepts de base aura été bien établie.

Extrait du sommaire:

1 Penser comme un programmeur
2 Premières instructions
3 Instructions de contrôle du flux
4 Instructions répétitives.
5 Principaux types de données
6 Premiers scripts
7 Les fonctions
8 Utilisation de fenêtres et de graphismes
9 Lire et écrire dans un fichier
10 Fenêtres avec menus
11 Encore les structures de données
12 Classes et objets

Formation_Python_cours_5

Obtenir le fichier PDF: Notes de cours pour l’apprentissage de la programmation avec Python

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